Organizing your Scholar library

Wednesday, August 31, 2016 | 4:33 PM

Google Scholar Library allows you to build your personal collection of articles within Scholar. You can save articles right from the search page, organize them with labels, and use the power of Scholar's full-text search & ranking to quickly find just the one you want. You decide what goes into your library and we provide all the goodies that come with Scholar search results - up to date article links, citing articles, related articles, formatted citations, links to your university’s subscriptions, and more.

As personal libraries have grown over time,  managing them takes more effort. Today we are making organizing your library easier by making it possible to update or export multiple articles with a single click. For example, if you are writing a new paper, you can quickly export the articles to cite to your favorite reference manager; if you are grouping papers that explore different aspects of your research area, you can select all papers in a sub-field and label them with one click.



If you don’t yet have a library,  it is easy to create one.

Posted by: Deepak Jindal, Senior Staff Engineer

2016 Scholar Metrics Released

Thursday, July 14, 2016 | 6:44 PM


Scholar Metrics provide an easy way for authors to quickly gauge the visibility and influence of recent articles in scholarly publications. Today, we are releasing the 2016 version of Scholar Metrics. This release covers articles published in 2011–2015 and includes citations from all articles that were indexed in Google Scholar as of June 2016.

Scholar Metrics include journal articles from websites that follow our inclusion guidelines, selected conference articles in Computer Science & Electrical Engineering and preprints from arXiv and NBER. Publications with fewer than 100 articles in 2011-2015, or publications that received no citations over these years are not included.

You can browse publications in specific categories such as Food Science & Technology, Sustainable Energy, or Public Health as well as broad areas like Engineering & Computer Science or Humanities, Literature & Arts . You will see the top 20 publications ordered by their five-year h-index and h-median metrics. You also can browse the top 100 publications in several languages - for example, Portuguese and Spanish. For each publication, you can view the top papers by clicking on the h5-index.

Scholar Metrics include a large number of publications beyond those listed on the per-category and per-language pages. You can find these by typing words from the title in the search box, e.g., [journalism], [saúde], [genes].

In this release, we have added per-language pages for five new languages - Russian, Korean, Polish, Ukrainian, and Indonesian.

For more details, see the Scholar Metrics help page.


Posted by: Anurag Acharya, Distinguished Engineer

Query suggestions to help explore new topics

Wednesday, June 1, 2016 | 4:01 PM


As a graduate student, I often had to find and read papers for my courses - usually in areas that I wasn't familiar with. Google Scholar had already made it possible to find papers in all areas of research and the key challenge was to find the right keywords to search for. And then, when I joined the Scholar team, I had to quickly come up to speed with yet more research fields.

Today, we are launching query suggestions to help users explore topics they may not be familiar with. When you do a query, the results page may also include related search queries to help you  explore different directions within your topic of interest. Query suggestions appear after search results.

For example, see  [antiparkinson]. As Wikipedia mentions, antiparkinson medications are used to treat/relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The suggested queries span several directions: Query suggestions span all broad areas of research. For example, see [gps antenna], [prions], [vaccination], [drug-eluting stents], [estoppel], [conformal field theory], [distributed database], [optimal stopping problem].

I wish I had access to something like this when I started working on query suggestions. Being able to quickly explore topics like [collocations], [language model] and [syntactic parsing] would have helped quite a bit...

As yet, query suggestions are available for selected English queries. We plan to expand the coverage to more languages and queries.

Posted by: Namit Shetty, Software Engineer

Quickly lookup references

Monday, January 11, 2016 | 12:30 PM


As a graduate student and then a faculty member, I spent many a day trying to find references I had seen in articles. Tracking down each reference and then a copy of it that I was able to read often took several steps. With many a slip twixt the cup and the lip.

To help researchers quickly lookup references, Scholar now automatically identifies queries that are likely to be looking for a specific paper. For such queries, it tries hard to find the intended paper and a version that that particular user is able to read. You can lookup full references, e.g.:

King CY, Diaz-Avalos R (2004) Protein-only transmission of three yeast prion strains. Nature 428: 319–323.

Wong PC, Pardo CA, Borchelt DR, Lee MK, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Sisodia SS, Cleveland DW, Price DL (1995) An adverse property of a familial ALS-linked SOD1 mutation causes motor neuron disease characterized by vacuolar degeneration of mitochondria. Neuron 14:1105–1116.

Accetta, F. S., Zoller, D. J., & Turner, M. S. 1985, Phys. Rev., D31, 3046

Watanabe, Y., & Komatsu, E. 2006, Phys. Rev. D, 73, 123515

You can lookup article titles:

Emerald: A general‐purpose programming language

Compelling transgenetic evidence for transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions to humans

If all you remember is some of the authors and words from the title, that works in many cases too:

einstein rosen podolsky 1935

riedel gibson active disks

You can cut-and-paste references, type what you remember of the paper, or better still use the Scholar Button (available for Chrome, Firefox and Safari).

The astute reader has no doubt already figured out that this feature can be embedded on other web sites and can be used by libraries, publishers, teachers and others to help their own readers and students track down scholarly articles. To construct a Scholar lookup URL for an article title or a full reference, URL-escape the text and append it to https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=. E.g., here is a link to one of our recent articles:

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=On+the+shoulders+of+giants%3A+The+growing+impact+of+older+articles.

We would like to thank Cliff Chiung Yu Lin for his contributions in making this feature possible.

Posted by: Anurag Acharya, Distinguished Engineer

2015 Scholar Metrics released

Thursday, June 25, 2015 | 12:16 PM


Scholar Metrics provide an easy way for authors to quickly gauge the visibility and influence of recent articles in scholarly publications. Today, we are releasing the 2015 version of Scholar Metrics. This release is based on citations from all articles that were indexed in Google Scholar as of mid-June 2015 and covers articles published in 2010–2014.

Scholar Metrics include journal articles from websites that follow our inclusion guidelines, selected conference articles in Computer Science & Electrical Engineering and preprints from arXiv, SSRN, NBER, and RePEc. As in previous releases, publications with fewer than 100 articles in the covered period, or publications that received no citations are not included.

You can browse publications in specific categories such as African Studies & History, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition or Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery as well as broad areas like Business, Economics & Management or Chemical & Material Sciences. You will see the top 20 publications ordered by their five-year h-index and h-median metrics. Since articles published in 2009 are not included anymore, most publications have a renewed h-core (the top h most cited articles) that you can see by clicking on the h-index number.

Scholar Metrics also includes a large number of publications beyond those listed on the per-category pages. You can find these by typing words from the title in the search box, e.g., [stem cells], [enfermagem], or [conservation].

Fun fact: while computing the 2015 metrics, we saw over 9,000 different ways to refer to the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition and over 4,000 ways to refer to the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

For more details, see the Scholar Metrics help page.


Posted by: Helder Suzuki, Software Engineer

Blast from the past: reprint request postcards

Monday, January 26, 2015 | 3:41 PM

Recently, I spent a few days organizing my uncle's papers. He was a graduate student in the 60s and a faculty member for the rest of his life. Going over his papers was like walking through the history of scholarly communication. One of the fascinating things I found were pre-printed postcards for requesting article reprints.

Each institution printed these postcards for its researchers. They included the institution address and a template request. To request a reprint, you would fill in the address of the author and some information about the paper you were interested in and drop it in mail. And hope for a response in six to ten weeks. Here are a couple of requests that my uncle received.





Much has changed since those days. Journal archives have moved online and email zips across the world in seconds. It is hard to imagine today how researchers of the day moved the mountains that they did.

Posted by: Anurag Acharya, Software Engineer

On the Shoulders of Giants: The Growing Impact of Older Articles

Tuesday, November 4, 2014 | 9:15 AM

Next in the 10th anniversary series, we look at the impact of older articles, and at how it had changed over the last several decades. A significant increase in the rate of publication over this time period might lead one to expect a corresponding decrease in the fraction of citations to older articles. However, this trend is counteracted by increasingly broad availability of archival content, and by universal availability of comprehensive relevance-ranked search. Overall, we found that the impact of older articles had grown over 1990-2013, and that the growth had accelerated over the second half of this time period.  -- Alex Verstak


On the Shoulders of Giants: The Growing Impact of Older Articles


Alex Verstak, Anurag Acharya, Helder Suzuki, Sean Henderson, Mikhail Iakhiaev, Cliff Chiung Yu Lin, Namit Shetty

In this paper, we examine the evolution of the impact of older scholarly articles. We attempt to answer four questions. First, how often are older articles cited and how has this changed over time. Second, how does the impact of older articles vary across different research fields. Third, is the change in the impact of older articles accelerating or slowing down. Fourth, are these trends different for much older articles.

To answer these questions, we studied citations from articles published in 1990-2013. We computed the fraction of citations to older articles from articles published each year as the measure of impact. We considered articles that were published at least 10 years before the citing article as older articles. We computed these numbers for 261 subject categories and 9 broad areas of research. Finally, we repeated the computation for two other definitions of older articles, 15 years and older and 20 years and older.

There are three conclusions from our study. First, the impact of older articles has grown substantially over 1990-2013. In 2013, 36% of citations were to articles that are at least 10 years old; this fraction has grown 28% since 1990. The fraction of older citations increased over 1990-2013 for 7 out of 9 broad areas and 231 out of 261 subject categories. Second, the increase over the second half (2002-2013) was double the increase in the first half (1990-2001). Third, the trend of a growing impact of older articles also holds for even older articles. In 2013, 21% of citations were to articles >= 15 years old with an increase of 30% since 1990 and 13% of citations were to articles >= 20 years old with an increase of 36%.

Now that finding and reading relevant older articles is about as easy as finding and reading recently published articles, significant advances aren't getting lost on the shelves and are influencing work worldwide for years after.